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BIOL 4354 Immunology (BA): Help/Assignment

What is a Literature Review

Or, sometimes called a Survey of the Scholarship.

A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources, and as such, do not report any new or original experimental work. Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment.

Most often associated with academic-oriented literature, such as a thesis or peer-reviewed article, a literature review usually precedes a research proposal and results section. Its main goals are to situate the current study within the body of literature and to provide context for the particular reader. Literature reviews are a staple for research in nearly every academic field.


Creating an outline for your academic paper or essay can help you structure your paper and develop your ideas. After you have developed your thesis statement, subject, or main idea, you outline will structure the main body of the paper. Divide your supporting information, ideas, or arguments into logical units, numbering or labeling each unit, e.g. with Roman numerals.

For detailed information on preparing an outline, including an example, please see the below guide:

Annotated Bibliography

Like a normal bibliography, works cited, or references list, an annotated bibliography includes a list of properly-cited resources (books, articles, etc.) used in the creation of an academic paper. However, an annotated bibliography also includes an annotation, or description of the cited resource, under each citation. Annotations are typically 3-4 sentences in length, and include both a description and a critical evaluation of the resource.

For detailed information on preparing an annotated bibliography, including examples, please see the link below: 

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