[Updated version — reflects guidelines provided in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition., released in October 2019]
Whenever you discuss someone else's ideas in your writing or presentation (even if you don't use their EXACT WORDS) you must cite the item in the text and then include a full citation in the reference list.
Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016).
If you are directly quoting the text of a source, you should include the page number as well:
"There are limitations to any test, including point-of-care CRP, and it should never be a substitute for clinical judgement" (Penney, 2016, p. 238).
As noted by Koehler (2016), falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public's perception of expert consensus on an issue.
For more information, see the following page at Purdue's Online Writing Lab:
Each citation should be double spaced, with the first line flush left and all subsequent lines indented (use tab key or set a hanging indent).
Double space between citation entries.
|Journal articles||ERIC documents||Web documents|
|Books and other works||Personal communications||Links to other resources|
Scroll down for examples of various reference list citations, or click on the links above to jump to those sections.
Author. (Date). Article title. Journal title, v#(i#), pages. DOI or URL
Anderson, M. (2018). Getting consistent with consequences. Educational Leadership, 76(1), 26-33.
Note: Articles found using a database are treated the same as print. There is no need to indicate the name of the database or a URL.
McCauley, S.M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126
Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31
Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of document (Report #). ERIC. URL
Mead, J.V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (ED346082). ERIC. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082). https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED346082.pdf
Please note that there are many different types of documents found in ERIC. The citation information they contain will vary. For example, not all documents will include a Report #.. Include as many elements from the example below as you can find.
Also note that if there is an EJ###### (ERIC journal #) instead of an ED###### (ERIC document #), you may cite the source like any other journal article (see above).
Author(s) [username]. (Date). Title if present, first few words of content if not. Site Name. URL
White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BettyMWhite/status/1009951892846227456
APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style
Provide a retrieval date because the page changes over time.
Gaiman, N. (2018, March 22). 100,000+ Rohingya refugees could be at serious risk during Bangladesh's monsoon season. My fellow UNHCR Goodwill Ambassador Cate Blanchett is [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. http://bit.ly/2JQxPAD
Use similar formatting for posts to Tumblr, LinkedIn, and similar social media sites.
Zeitz MOCAA [@zeitzmocaa]. (2018, November 26). Grade 6 learners from Parkfields Primary School in Hanover Park visited the museum for a tour and workshop histed by [Photographs], Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BqpHpjFBs3b/
National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I'm NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post], Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/
Author(s). (Date). Title of book. Publisher Name(s). DOI or URL
Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.
Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton. https://doi.org/10.1037/15969-000
Note that multiple publisher names should be separated with a semicolon.
Cain, S. (2012). Quiet: The power of introverts in a world that can't stop talking (K. Mazur, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Random House Audio. http://bit.ly/2G0Bpbl
Graham, G. (2019). Behaviorism. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Summer 2019 ed.). Stanford University. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2019/entries/behaviorism
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://dictionary.apa.org/positive-transference
Weinstock, R., Leong,, G. B., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press
Siewert, K. (2009). [Review of the book Patient Zero by J. Maberry]. Library Journal, 134(4), 64-66.
Because they cannot be retrieved at a later date, personal communications (such as emails, personal interviews, or live speeches) cannot be included in a reference list. They should only be cited in the text as parenthetical or narrative citations.
...according to B. Martin (personal communication, November 2, 2020)