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APA Quick Guide, 2007

Updated version - reflects guidelines provided in the 2007 APA Style Guide to Electronic References

Whenever you discuss someone else's ideas in your writing or presentation (even if you don't use his/her EXACT WORDS) you must cite the item in the text and then include a full citation on the reference list.

Each citation should be double spaced, with the first line flush left with all subsequent lines indented (use tab key).

Double space between citation entries.

Journal Articles (print only)
Web Documents
(including journal articles found on our databases)

Books and Other
(includes book reviews, entries in encyclopedias & other reference books, chapters & newspaper articles)

Citing Journals and ERIC Documents

Journal Article (Print):

On reference list:

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of publication, vol#(issue#), beginning page#-end page.

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology

     Journal: Practice and Research, 45
(2), 10-36.

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Klimoski & Palmer, 1993).

Note: In your in-text citations, you only need the page number if you have directly quoted the source.

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ERIC document - Please note that there are many different types of documents found in ERIC. The citation information they contain will vary. For example, not all documents will include a Report #, and they may or may not include the place of publication. Include as many elements from the example below as you can find.

Also note that if there is an EJ###### (ERIC journal #) instead of an ED###### (ERIC document #), you may cite it like a Journal Retrieved from a Database. (See below.)

On reference list:

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of document (Report #). Place of publication: Publisher. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED######).

Mead, J.V. (1992). Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with

     them
(Report No. NCRTL - RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teacher

     Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082).

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Mead, 1992).

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Web documents

Journal article retrieved from a database (DOI available):

On reference list:

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of publication, vol#(issue#), beginningpage#-endpage#. DOI*

Devine, P. G., & Sherman, S. J. (1992). Intuitive versus rational judgment and the role of stereotyping in the

     human condition: Kirk or Spock? Psychological Inquiry, 3(2), 153-159. doi:10.1207/s15327965pli0302_13

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Klimoski & Palmer, 1993).

*DOI: Digital Object Identifier is a string of numbers (and/or letters) assigned to individual journal articles as well as to some other publications. The database may provide the DOI as part of the citation, or you may have to look at the top or bottom of the first page of the article to find it. If a document has a DOI, then you do not need to include a database name or website address (URL).

If the article does not have a DOI, replace the DOI with the following: Retrieved from name of database database.

Journal article retrieved from a database (DOI not available):

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of publication, vol#(issue#), beginningpage#-endpage#. Retrieved on month, day, year, from name of database.

Friedlander, D . (2009). Sam comes to school: Including students with autism in your classroom. Clearing House ,

     82
(3), 141-144. Retrieved from Professional Development Collection database.

Internet journal article, based on a print source, retrieved from an online source other than a database:

On reference list:

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of article [Electronic version]. Title of publication, vol#(issue#), beginningpage#-endpage#.

Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations [Electronic version].

     Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Klimoski & Palmer, 1993).

If you believe that the online version has been altered and is different from the print, use the form below (especially if there are no page numbers offered):

On reference list:

Author(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of publication, vol#(issue#), beginningpage#-endpage#. Retrieved month day, year, from URL.

Lance, K. (1994). The impact of school library media centers on academic achievement. School Library Media

     Quarterly, 22
(3). Retrieved June 6, 2007, from

     http://www.ala.org/ala/aasl/aaslpubsandjournals/slmrb/editorschoiceb/infopower/s electlancehtml.cfm

Note that the example in the box above does not include page numbers; that is often the case when a print article is offered on a Web Site. If they are not present on the version you view, it's acceptable to leave them out. Your statement of retrieval shows the reader that it's likely been modified from the print. Once he/she accesses it online, they can use the search feature to find particular sections you've quoted.

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Lance, 1994).

Document available on a web site (other than a journal article):

On reference list:

Author(s). (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved Month, day, year, from Title of Web site: URL.

Chou, L., McClintock, R., Moretti, F., & Nix, D.H. (1993). Technology and education: new wine in new bottles:

     Choosing pasts and imaging educational futures.
Retrieved August 24, 2000, from Columbia University,

     Institute for Learning Technologies Web site: http://www.ilt.columbia.edu/publications/papers/newwinel.html

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Chou, McClintock, Moretti & Nix, 1993).

If there are no authors listed, begin with the Title of document and follow it with the (Year of publication).

If there is no date available, use (n.d.).

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Technology and education, n.d.).

Entire Web sites

Whenever possible, provide citation information for a specific page or document on a web site (see above) rather than to a home or index page. If an entire site is used for a project, include the basic name and URL for the site within the text. As per APA recommendations, a citation on the reference list is not necessary, but since in many cases your instructor will require that it be listed, it can be formatted in this way:

Author of Web site (if known). (Year of publication). Title of site. Retrieved month, day, year, from URL.

If the author is not known, cite as follows:

Title of site. (Year of publication). Retrieved month, day, year, from URL.

Within body of text:

...when you first mention the site, end the sentence by putting the URL in parenthesis before the period (www.???.com).

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Books and other

Book:

Norton, D. E. (2003).  Through the eyes of a child:  An introduction to children’s literature .  Upper Saddle

     River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall.

E-Book (Electronic Book accessed through NetLibrary, Ebrary or other E-Book provider):

Norton, D. E. (2003).  Through the eyes of a child:  An introduction to children’s literature .  Upper Saddle

     River, NJ:  Merrill Prentice Hall. Retrieved February 12, 2007, from the NetLibrary database.

E-Book (Electronic Book NOT accessed through a database or specific subscription provider):

O'Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from

     http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135.

Within body of text:

...end of your sentence or paragraph containing information from this resource (Norton, 2003).

Entry in MMY: http://buros.unl.edu/buros/jsp/faq.html#citemmy

Encyclopedia Entry:

Bergmann, P.G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago:

___Encyclopedia Britannica.

Note: If an entry has no byline (no author listed), move the article title to the author position (first position) and move year of publication to follow title.

Article or chapter in an edited book: (this includes Contemporary Authors, Something About the Author, etc.)

Martin,William Ivan 1916-. (1986). In H. May (Ed.), Contemporary authors, Vol. 117 (p.278-279). Detroit, MI:

     Gale Research. 

Note: As with the encyclopedia format, if an entry has no byline (no author listed), move the article title to the author position (first position) and move year of publication to follow title. That is the case with the example above.

Poem in a book:

Prelutsky, J.  (1989).  A sled for Christmas.  In A. Low (Ed.) The family read-aloud Christmas treasury (p. 51).

       Boston:  Little, Brown and Co.

Book review:

McMahon, J.  (1991).  [Review of the book Danny and the dinosaur].  School Library Journal, 37(4), 153.

Note: If the review has a formal title, place it between the date and the brackets and format as a journal article title.

Book review accessed through an electronic database (such as Academic Search Premier):

McMahon, J.  (1991).  [Review of the book Danny and the dinosaur].  School Library Journal, 37(4), 153.

       Retrieved February 12, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Daily Newspaper Article:

Smith, R .  (2007, August 4). Concert a huge success at community center.  The Daily Gazette, p. 15.

Daily Newspaper Article (With no author / byline):

Concert a huge success at community center.  (2007, August 4).  The Daily Gazette, p. 15.

Daily Newspaper Article (With discontinuous pages):

Concert a huge success at community center.  (2007, August 4).  The Daily Gazette, pp. 10, 15.

Weekly Newspaper Article, letter to the editor:

Carey, A.J.   (2007, August 4).  Treatment of homeless a disgrace.[Letter to the editor]. The Daily Gazette, p. 10.

Personal Communications: (Includes phone conversations, emails, etc.)

Personal communications should not be included on the reference list because they cannot be located at a later time by the reader. They should be cited as an in-text citation (parenthetical reference). See page 214 of the APA manual.

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* Information and some examples were taken from the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and from the web site of Peggy Kaney, Access Services Librarian and Instructor of LIBM 4023, Northeastern State University. See an example of an actual References page below:

References

Kaney, P. (2004.) Resources for LIBM4023: Materials for children. Retrieved August 30, 2005 from

     http://arapaho.nsuok.edu/%7Ekaneypl/resources.htm

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, D.C.:

     American Psychological Association.

 

If you have not found the type of source you are citing, try the following sites for help:

Using APA format (Purdue University) - this comprehensive guide summarizes the print version of the book. Click on Your Reference List to find examples of the proper format to use when listing sources you used.

APA Style.org Frequently Asked Questions - http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html



Sarah Burkhead


Page maintained by: Sarah Burkhead
Last Updated: January 30, 2009